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The pace of arrests overwhelmed the physical capacity of the Rwandan prison system, leading to what Amnesty International deemed "cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment ". Government institutions, including judicial courts, were destroyed, and many judges, prosecutors, and employees were murdered during the genocide. Of Rwanda's judges, did not remain after the genocide—many were murdered and most of the survivors fled Rwanda. By , Rwanda only had 50 lawyers in its judicial system. The RPF government began the long-awaited genocide trials, which had an uncertain start at the end of and inched forward in It was not until that courts finally began trials for genocide cases with the enactment of Organic Law No.
The Organic Law established four categories for those who were involved in the genocide, specifying the limits of punishment for members of each category. The first category was reserved those who were "planners, organizers, instigators, supervisors and leaders" of the genocide and any who used positions of state authority to promote the genocide.
This category also applied to murderers who distinguished themselves on the basis of their zeal or cruelty, or who engaged in sexual torture. Members of this first category were eligible for the death sentence. While Rwanda had the death penalty prior to the Organic law, in practice no executions had taken place since Twenty-two individuals were executed by firing squad in public executions in April After this, Rwanda conducted no further executions, though it did continue to issue death sentences until On 25 July the Organic Law Relating to the Abolition of the Death Penalty came into law, abolishing the death penalty and converting all existing death penalty sentences to life in prison under solitary confinement.
In response to the overwhelming number of potentially culpable individuals and the slow pace of the traditional judicial system, the government of Rwanda passed Organic Law No. Among the principal objectives of the courts were identification of the truth about what happened during the genocide, speeding up the process of trying genocide suspects, national unity and reconciliation, and demonstrating the capacity of the Rwandan people to resolve their own problems. The Gacaca court system faced many controversies and challenges; they were accused of being puppets of the RPF-dominated government.
On 18 June , the Gacaca court system was officially closed after facing criticism. The UN Tribunal tried high-level members of the government and armed forces, while Rwanda prosecuted lower-level leaders and local people. Since the ICTR was established as an ad hoc international jurisdiction,  the ICTR was scheduled to close by the end of ,  after it would complete trials by and appeals by or Initially, the U.
Security Council established the ICTR in with an original mandate of four years without a fixed deadline and set on addressing the crimes committed during the Rwandan genocide. With the announcement of its closing, there was a concern over how residual issues would be handled, because "The nature of criminal judicial work [ Article 38 of the Constitution of Rwanda guarantees "the freedom of expression and freedom of access to information where it does not prejudice public order, good morals, the protection of the youth and children, the right of every citizen to honour and dignity and protection of personal and family privacy.
Under these exceptions, longtime Rwandan president, Paul Kagame , asserted that any acknowledgment of the separate people was detrimental to the unification of post-Genocide Rwanda and has created numerous laws to prevent Rwandans from promoting a "genocide ideology" and "divisionism.
Article 34 of the Rwandan constitution states that "freedom of the press and freedom of information are recognized and guaranteed by the state"; however, the constitution does not in practice prevent media restrictions. Kagame proposed that these laws were necessary for retaining national unity and protecting against future genocide. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists CPJ , the government threatens journalists who investigate or criticize the government.
The CPJ proposed that these threats and the possible jail sentences cause journalists to self censor, even beyond what would normally be censored by the government. Article 34, along with the bans on speech that includes genocide ideology and divisionism, has commonly been used as a method for revoking journalists licenses. In response to the documentary, the Rwandan government shut down BBC in the local to BBC promoting a "revisionist" position on the genocide in a documentary.
While before the genocide, Rwandan history textbooks would acknowledge and highlight differences between Tutsi and Hutu people, today, the only government approved Rwandan history textbook stresses the Rwandans as one people and virtually ignore the ethnic differences and pre-genocide conflicts. Since taking office, Kagame has implemented information and media controls to prevent the spread of dissent, including threatening and imprisoning journalists and political opponents for breaking his rules or disrespecting his government and military. His election opponent, Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza , served 8 years of a year prison sentence for "conspiracy against the country through terrorism and war" and " genocide denial ".
After international backlash, this policy was never enacted. The pervasive use of rape as a weapon of war caused a spike in HIV infection, including babies born to mothers infected during rapes. Due to the wholesale slaughter of both men and women, many households were headed by widows or totally orphaned children.
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Today, Rwanda has two public holidays which mourn the genocide. The national mourning period begins with Kwibuka Remembrance , the national commemoration, on 7 April and it concludes with Liberation Day on 4 July. The week following 7 April is an official week of mourning, known as Icyunamo.
As a result of the genocide, nations collaborated to establish the International Criminal Court in order to prosecute genocide, crimes against humanity , and war crimes. The report on the living conditions of survivors conducted by the Ministry in charge of Social Affairs in Rwanda reported the following situation of survivors in the country: .
There are a number of organizations representing and supporting these survivors of the genocide. Another firsthand account of the Rwandan genocide is offered by Dr. Courtemanche's book was made into a movie, A Sunday in Kigali This same story is related in Rusesabagina's autobiography An Ordinary Man The independent documentary film Earth Made of Glass which addresses the personal and political costs of the genocide, focusing on Rwandan President Paul Kagame and genocide survivor Jean-Pierre Sagahutu, premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival.
In , Alison Des Forges wrote that eleven years after the genocide, films for popular audiences on the subject greatly increased the "widespread realization of the horror that had taken the lives of more than half a million Tutsi". Among songs, "Rwanda" by the punk-ska band Rancid from the album Rancid is about the Rwandan genocide. So is the punk-ska band Rx Bandits ' song "In All Rwanda's Glory", on their album Progress , which they say contains "overly political lyrics".
Brooke Fraser wrote the song " Albertine " on her album Albertine about an eponymous orphan from the genocide whom Fraser met one time in Rwanda in In , the Christian metalcore band Fit for a King explained that a song titled "Stacking Bodies", on their newest album, is about the Rwandan genocide. Former journalist and United States Ambassador to the United Nations Samantha Power is interviewed about the Rwandan genocide in Watchers of the Sky , a documentary by Edet Belzberg about genocide throughout history and its eventual inclusion in international law. Juliane Okot Bitek's book of poetry, Days , University of Alberta Press uses the Rwandan genocide as a framework within which to explore "the senseless loss of life and of innocence" as well as "her own family's experience of displacement under the regime of Idi Amin "  Juliane Okot Bitek is the daughter of Ugandan poet Okot p'Bitek.
These are members of the Hutu majority who risked their lives to shield and protect Tutsis. Inspired by the events of the genocide, international involvements and subsequent prosecution of war criminals, Hugo Blick wrote and directed the fictional television drama series Black Earth Rising. The Ugandan producer and director Richard Mulindwa's film 94 Terror , set during the genocide, depicts an unlikely friendship between a Hutu and a Tutsi, and their escape to Uganda across the River Kagera border.
The genocide is referenced repeatedly. It tells the story of how Kabuga evaded capture as a fugitive until his arrest on the 16th of May Since the end of the genocide there have been frequent charges of revisionism. That word could be massacre or terror or another word, depending on the event.
Stam of Dartmouth College argued that the anti-Tutsi genocide constituted only part of the slaughter of spring and summer ; that the RPF was "clearly responsible" for another major portion of the killings; that the victims were "fairly evenly distributed between Tutsi and Hutu"; that the majority of the dead were Hutu, rather than Tutsi; and that, "among other things, it appears that there simply weren't enough Tutsi in Rwanda at the time to account for all the reported deaths".
It aroused considerable controversy.
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Based on interviews with RPF defectors and top-secret documents that were leaked from the ICTR, Rever argued that a second genocide against Hutus had in fact been committed by the RPF in as well as in the following years. Under the Rwandan constitution, "revisionism, negationism and trivialisation of genocide" are criminal offences. According to Amnesty International, of the individuals convicted of "genocide revisionism and other related crimes" in , five were sentenced to life imprisonment, five were sentenced to more than 20 years in jail, 99 were sentenced to 10—20 years in jail, received a custodial sentence of 5—10 years, and the remaining received jail terms of less than five years.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Human skulls at the Nyamata Genocide Memorial.
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Human skulls at the Nyamata Genocide Memorial Centre. Initial events Chronology Gikondo massacre Nyarubuye massacre. Parties responsible. People indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal. Bibliography Filmography. Main article: Origins of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa. Main article: Rwandan Revolution. Main article: Rwandan Civil War. Main article: Rape during the Rwandan genocide.
Main article: Role of the international community in the Rwandan genocide. Main article: Role of France in the Rwandan genocide. Main article: Gacaca court. Main article: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. See also: List of films about the Rwandan genocide and Bibliography of the Rwandan genocide.
A great deal of effort has been extended to make sure the focus stays exclusively on the Francophone Tutsi victims and their Hutu executioners. But of the estimated one million people killed, between , and , of them were Tutsi, according to best estimates. What about the other , to , people? Who is responsible for their deaths?
See also: Rwandan genocide denial. Archived from the original on 19 November Retrieved 13 December Seven out of every 10 Tutsis were killed. The East African. Archived from the original on 27 March Retrieved 7 December The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 16 June Northwestern Journal of Human Rights.
Retrieved 17 July Jones, Peacemaking , S. Parsons New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Church and Revolution in Rwanda. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Human Rights Documents online. Retrieved 10 October Translated by Linda Coverdale. Preface by Susan Sontag. Chronology of Events. African Studies Review. Rethinking Rwanda's "Radio Machete " ". The Quarterly Journal of Economics.
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Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 28 October Civil Wars. Genocide" PDF. International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi. Archived from the original PDF on 16 July Retrieved 29 June Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 14 April National Security Archive. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 18 December Human Rights Quarterly.